top of page


Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD): Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in older adults, affecting millions worldwide. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and exploring the treatment options are crucial for managing this condition effectively. In this article, we delve into the details of AMD to help you stay informed and proactive about your eye health.

What is Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)?
AMD is a degenerative eye condition that primarily affects the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, central vision. This condition can significantly impair the ability to read, drive, recognize faces, and perform other daily tasks.


Types of AMD
There are two main types of AMD:
1. Dry AMD (Atrophic AMD):

  • Description: The more common form, accounting for about 85-90% of cases. It involves the gradual breakdown of the macula's light-sensitive cells.

  • Progression: Slower progression with gradual vision loss.

2. Wet AMD (Neovascular AMD):

  • Description: Less common but more severe. It occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow under the retina and leak fluid or blood.

  • Progression: Rapid progression with significant vision loss if untreated.


Causes of AMD
The exact cause of AMD is not fully understood, but several risk factors are associated with the development and progression of the disease:



  • Primary Factor: AMD is most common in people aged 50 and older, with risk increasing significantly as one ages.



  • Family History: Having a family history of AMD increases the risk, indicating a genetic predisposition.


Lifestyle Factors

  • Smoking: Smokers are at a significantly higher risk of developing AMD.

  • Diet: Poor diet lacking in essential nutrients can contribute to the development of AMD.

  • Sun Exposure: Prolonged exposure to UV light may increase the risk.


Health Conditions

  • Cardiovascular Disease: Conditions like high blood pressure and heart disease can contribute to AMD.

  • Obesity: Being overweight is linked to a higher risk of AMD.

Symptoms of AMD
Recognizing the symptoms of AMD early can help in managing the condition more effectively. Symptoms can vary depending on the type and stage of AMD:

Early Symptoms

  • Blurriness: Mild blurriness in central vision.

  • Difficulty Reading: Trouble reading small print or needing brighter light to read.


Advanced Symptoms

  • Central Vision Loss: A dark or empty area in the center of vision.

  • Distorted Vision: Straight lines appear wavy or distorted (metamorphopsia).

  • Color Perception: Diminished or altered color perception.


Diagnosing AMD

  • Regular eye exams are crucial for early detection of AMD. An ophthalmologist can diagnose AMD using several methods:


Dilated Eye Exam

  • Procedure: Drops are used to dilate the pupils, allowing the doctor to examine the retina and macula for signs of AMD.Amsler Grid

  • Procedure: A grid of straight lines is used to detect vision distortions indicative of AMD.


Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

  • Procedure: A non-invasive imaging test that provides detailed cross-sections of the retina to detect changes in thickness and structure.


Fluorescein Angiography

  • Procedure: A dye is injected into the bloodstream, and photographs of the retina are taken to identify leaking blood vessels in wet AMD.


Treatment Options for AMD
While there is no cure for AMD, several treatments can slow its progression and improve quality of life:

Dry AMD Treatments

  • Lifestyle Changes: Quitting smoking, adopting a healthy diet rich in leafy greens, fish, and nuts.

  • AREDS Supplements: Specific vitamins and minerals (AREDS formula) have been shown to slow the progression of intermediate to advanced AMD.

Wet AMD Treatments

  • Anti-VEGF Injections: Medications like Avastin, Lucentis, and Eylea inhibit the growth of abnormal blood vessels. Regular injections can stabilize or improve vision.

  • Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): A light-activated drug is used to destroy abnormal blood vessels.

  • Laser Therapy: High-energy lasers are used to seal leaking blood vessels, though this method is less common today.

Supportive Measures

  • Low Vision Aids: Magnifying glasses, large-print reading materials, and electronic devices designed for low vision can help maintain independence.

  • Rehabilitation: Vision rehabilitation programs can teach adaptive strategies to cope with vision loss.

Preventing AMD
While some risk factors for AMD cannot be controlled, certain lifestyle changes can help reduce the risk:

  • Healthy Diet: Eat a diet rich in leafy green vegetables, fruits, and fish.

  • Quit Smoking: Avoid tobacco use to lower your risk.

  • Protect Eyes from UV Light: Wear sunglasses with UV protection.

  • Regular Exercise: Maintain a healthy weight and blood pressure.

  • Regular Eye Exams: Early detection and monitoring are key to managing AMD.


Age-related macular degeneration is a significant cause of vision loss among older adults, but early detection and proactive management can make a difference. By understanding the causes, recognizing symptoms, and exploring available treatments, you can take steps to protect your vision and maintain a good quality of life. For personalized advice and treatment options, consult with an eye care professional. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle are your best defenses against AMD.

For more information on eye health and to schedule an eye exam at Hillside Optometry in Granada Hills, call us at 818-474-2020, 

bottom of page